1.) Written paper that discusses quantitative, qualitative and mixed research methodologies and
identifies the strength and limitations of these methodologies.
2.) Included in this paper should be a discussion on ethical and diversity issues in research.
3.) The paper needs to be (5) five pages in length using APA format (6th edition APA manual).
4.) This paper also needs to include matching citations in the body of the paper and a reference page written in APA style (6th edition APA manual).
5.) Text book: Reading and Understanding Research, ed. 3; Lawrence F. Locke, Stephen J. Silverman, Waneen Wyrick Spirduso6.) Please use the following Example document as guide to compose this document: See Below
EXAMPLE OF PAPER: (PLEASE FOLLOW THIS FORMAT)
To start with, quantitative research is a type of scientific research that can be measured based on numbers. In other words, quantitative research collects numbers and statistics to quantify data and measure specific variables. The data is closed-ended information that looks at behaviors and makes predictions based on what is found. The purpose of quantitative research is to test a hypothesis using a process of measurement that analyzes scores collected from instruments or validated checklists. Also, in quantitative research the groups studied for the data are usually large and selected at random. The researcher in quantitative data focuses on identifying statistical relationships within the analysis process. And, the common researching goals of the investigator are to describe the psychological phenomena, explain the researching method, and predict the outcome of the study. Given that, there are five types of quantitative research designs that examine variables in different ways. Descriptive research analyzes situations by using questions that warrant descriptive studies to get the necessary statistics. Correlational research observes the relationship between the specific variables being studies. Quasi-experimental/Experimental research is related to a large family of research designs that examines data based on if groups differ on some specified variable. Providing that, the last two quantitative research designs are Single-Subject Research and Meta-analysis. Single-Subject Research reflects the study of human behavior, and Meta-analysis research focuses on the technique of combining results from different studies. Furthermore, quantitative research is a dominant type of research that collects data using numbers from mathematical measurements.
Specifically, the purpose of qualitative research is to recognize and translate significant social interactions. Qualitative research is also a type of scientific research that collects evidence based on a specific question. Notably, the questions that are used in qualitative research are open-ended questions for interviewing procedures. Providing that, the foundation of qualitative research understands individuals and their connection to social and human problems. The human problems that are being investigated in qualitative research are not gathered in numerical form, but in interviews and questionnaires. The collection of data is done with the participants, in their communities to truly understand the social issues. Researchers using the qualitative design fully engage with their participants, and make interpretations based on the themes that come up. Qualitative research is used to comprehend the different perspectives of the chosen participants, and analyze the meanings of their narratives. Given that, there are four common paradigms for qualitative research that connect to a specific scientific community. Narrative research is a common design where the researchers gain information from individuals through stories. Phenomenological research is focused on a particular phenomenon and how that impacts the lived experiences of the participants. Providing that, the last two common paradigms of qualitative research are grounded theory and ethnography research. Grounded theory results in the researcher developing a theory from the data collection. And, ethnography research is dedicated to the researcher studying a particular group in their home setting, and learning about their values and beliefs. Therefore, qualitative research is used to learn more about a noteworthy problem that is affecting the lives of the selected participants.
Namely, mixed methods research is the blending of data from quantitative and qualitative research. The methodology collects data using both approaches and mixes it together in one single study. The single mixed methods study comprises of a combination of quantitative data and qualitative data that promotes more awareness to the researching problem. By using both sources of data in a single study or a series of studies it provides more perspectives on the researching topic. Providing that, the research design is known for having a better understanding in the scientific field because of the use of quantitative and qualitative data. The two forms of data are blended together for many reasons associated with the researching design. To explain, there are three types of mixing procedures in mixed methods, and they are integrating, connecting and embedding. The integration procedure is based on parallel mixing, and the connecting procedure reflects sequential mixing. Additionally, the embedding procedure has two types of strategies to collect data, which represents concurrent and sequential methods. Given that, mixed methods research also have three basic designs that focus on how data is analyzed. The three basic designs are convergent, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential. Surely, each design collects data differently and analyzes data differently. As a result, mixed methods research is dedicated to achieving credibility through analyzing quantitative and qualitative data in a specific study.
In particular, the strengths of quantitative research are based on how the data is collected and analyzed in a precise manner. For example, some methods of quantitative research is not time consuming, such as phone interviews for data collection. Also, the use of statistical software in quantitative research ensures a quicker data analysis process. The most common advantages of quantitative research reflect how the theories are constructed, and how it is useful to examine large numbers of people.
Given that, the strengths of qualitative research are represented in the narratives of the participants in each study. I mean, qualitative research affords people the chance to tell their stories as it relates to the research issue. Participants are able to share their beliefs and emotions on serious issues related to humanity. Overall, the advantages of qualitative research are connected to how the data is interpreted within a social context.
Furthermore, the strengths of mixed methods research are founded in the usage of both quantitative and qualitative data. In other words, the narratives of the participants can be used to add more meaning to the numbers of the study. Also, the numbers can provide more credibility to the stories of the study. The two research designs work together in mixed methods to achieve a stronger theory or investigation. Providing that, the advantages of mixed methods research is connected to more complete knowledge on the issue at hand.
Notably, the limitations of quantitative research are related to the categories and theories the researchers use in the study. Some information used in quantitative research may not connect to the outside society based on the type of data collection. In other words, a common disadvantage of quantitative research is the lack of association between the local situations and individuals connected to the phenomenon.
Providing that, the limitations of qualitative research are related to the sample sizes and the statistical significance. The common belief is that qualitative research sample sizes are to small and does not represent the dominant society. Also, because of the use of words in the data, a common criticism is that the findings have no substantial significance.
Altogether, the limitations of mixed methods research are reflected in the way the researcher conducts the study. Analyzing both quantitative and qualitative research may be very difficult for one researcher to accomplish. Also, mixing data is not easy, so the researcher needs adequate training on how to blend the data. Therefore, mixed methods research is expensive and more time consuming for any investigator. And, the ethical issues in mixed methods designs related to informed consent and confidentiality.
Locke, L. F., Silverman, S. J., & Spirduso, W. W. (2010). Reading and understanding research (3rd ed.). CA: SAGE Publications.
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches (p. 34). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Lichtman, M. (2006). Qualitative research in education: A user’s guide (pp. 7-8). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.