Component of the Research Critique 1. Problem Statement The problem statement is a clear statement of the phenomena being investigated. In the first paragraph the scope of the problem should be documented. The problem statement should be concise and convince the reader that the research has merit for study. 2. Literature Review The literature review evaluates what is known and what is unknown about the phenomena of interest. The literature review describes a previous investigation’s success and shortcomings, Major variable that are manipulated or measured must be included. Simply listing the findings in not sufficient. A critical analysis, meaning discussion of the strengths and weaknesses, is needed in the review of the literature. 3. Conceptual Model/Theoretical Framework The conceptual model or theoretical framework is the logical structure of meaning that guides the study. In quantitative studies, the framework is the testable theory. In qualitative work, it is a philosophical view that is developed as an outcome of the study. Frameworks contain concepts, abstractions that describe the meaning of the study. Sometimes studies focus on a particular theory to drive the methodology. 4. Research Question/Hypothesis/Problem Statement The research question is a statement that informs the reader of the aim of the study. It can be stated in the form of a hypothesis. A null hypothesis states no relationship among variables. A research questions asks “Is there a relationship between… in other words a declarative or investigative statement. The question, statement of the problem or FNP 684A – Primary Care – Women & Children Rev9.25.17 tuh 28 hypothesis describes the variables, the relationships among and between the variables, and even the population under study. 5. Methodology The method of research is either quantitative or qualitative, in nature or both. Quantitative designs involve, for example, experiments, survey, review, and are based on a tentative prediction between variables. Qualitative work is based on discovery through experiences, feelings, phenomena, description, and conceptualizing data. Each method has precise components to the method, or way in which the study is conducted. 6. Research Design The research design is a logical plan of how the data is to be collected and interpreted. The components of the research design include the setting, the subject, the sample, the procedure, the methods and interpretation. 7. Methodology A. Quantitative Methodology a. Variables are characteristics or attributes that vary with the population being investigated. Independent variables vary between groups, while independent variables remain constant. Variables are defined operationally for clarity. b. Sampling consists of the population being studied, the method of choosing the sample, and the number of subjects needed for the investigation. In essence, the sample is a representative section of the target population. There are many different methods utilized to derive a sample. Data is then gathered from the sample. Population→Sample→Data c. Data Collection and Measurement encompasses the information gathered to study the phenomena and the way in which it is statistically evaluated. Measurement is the way in which numerical values are assigned to the data. There are four levels of data measurement, nominal, ordinal, interval and ration. Tools are generally used for collecting data. The measurement tool needs to have established validity and reliability. d. Analysis is the working of the data. Analysis helps to determine trends and relationships among variables. Most analysis is statistical in nature, with varying levels of complexity. Description, inferential, predictions are a few examples of analysis. The statistical analysis is predicated on the research question. e. Conclusions are the way in which the findings and results are interpreted. What are the implications for research, theory and practice? During the conclusion, the researcher determines and disseminates the significance of the findings. The researcher seeks to convince the audience of the practical aspects of the study and application to the profession. B. Qualitative Methodology a. Statement of the Phenomena is synonymous with the research problem. It is a description of the understanding that is under study. The purpose of the study is included. C. The Rigor of Qualitative Research According to Burns (2004), the evaluation of qualitative research is based on data gathered over time, data are context specific, events are understood in relation to their meaning, and data change over time. Below are examples of concepts that establish FNP 684A – Primary Care – Women & Children Rev9.25.17 tuh 29 rigor in qualitative work. Not every study needs every concept. The more concepts the researcher addresses, the more rigor the study contains. a. Reflexivity Reflexivity is the researcher self examination. It is based on awareness on the relationship between the researcher and research environment. Reflexivity requires an examination of bias in the researcher, the institution, and society. b. Fittingness The concept of fittingness is the applicability of the findings of qualitative research. Opposed to generalizability in quantitative work fittingness is the manner in which the study phenomena concepts fit into another context. c. Auditability Auditability is similar to reliability in quantitative work. Auditability allows another researcher to follow the decision trail of the study. An “audit” trail is necessary by way of the tools of qualitative work; memos, field notes, descriptions or transcripts. Personal journals, hand written notes are also examples of Auditability. d. Credibility Truth and value of qualitative research is referred to as credibility. It is a measure of the vivid and faithful descriptions of the phenomena. Outside review by other researchers a manner to establish credibility. e. Trustworthiness Trustworthiness is similar to internal validity in quantitative work. The researcher establishes the truth behind the study, and the truth behind the reporting of the data and interpretation of the data with minimal bias.