Review the program planning model in chapter 4 of Program Development and Evaluation In Prevention, and the Getting To Outcomes resources.
• Determine a prevention program you will adapt and highlight for the first prevention proposal to be submitted in week 5; noting that the program should focus on individuals with strategies such as indicated, selective, or universal; cultural adaptations, etc.
• Select one of the planning models and summarize the steps as they apply to your program; either the 10-step PD&E Plan presented in chapter 4 or the 10-step Getting to Outcomes model (see reading resources).
• Clearly label the steps and provide a 2-3 sentence summary per step;
**** the login details for the chapters are attached
EXAMPLES OF EXPECTATIONS
The Ten Step PD&E Plan for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Children 2-5 Years Old
Lay the groundwork for community, collaboration, and cultural relevance.
Building a successful childhood obesity prevention program implemented in a Head Start Program needs the support of the community. Families of the children need to see the value in it, and family care practitioners need to be willing to work together to support the families participating. Professionals involved need to be aware of and respect the culture of the community (Conyne, 2013).
Analyze local context and conduct professional literature review.
Obtain local data on childhood obesity from Head Start, local health providers, and public health. Become aware of the local community and the accessibility the children and families have to physical activities. Review literature to see if other programs have been attempted in the area to determine what works and what needs to be improved (Conyne, 2013). One program that can be implemented is We Can!, created by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and adapted for children ages 2-5 and their parents (Foster et al., 2019)
Create problem statement.
Creating a problem statement for childhood obesity prevention will start with identifying the extent of the issue in the area and then determining a level of incidence reduction. The problem statement will also focus on building knowledge of obesity prevention and a healthier lifestyle in the community (Conyne, 2013).
Develop preventive goals, objectives, strategies, and evaluation.
The goal will be created using the SPAMO acronym. Based on the identified needs of the community childhood obesity in the community will be reduced by a certain percentage within the first year, building upon that percentage in following years. Another goal of the program will be to increase child participation in physical activities and measuring this in percentages, increasing the goal yearly (Conyne, 2013).
Obtain inputs and resources.
Some of the necessary inputs and resources for the childhood obesity prevention program are increased access to nutritious food from local food banks and farmers’ markets. Another resource would be creating accessible open spaces for physical activity and reducing barriers to young children participating in organized sports in their communities (Conyne, 2013).
Implement program plan with participants through strategies comprising sequenced and coordinated activities, tasks, responsibilities, resources, and timelines.
During this step, trained employees in the Head Start Program will conduct parent education with the family participants. Those responsible for providing access to healthy food and physical activities will ensure that participating families have access (Conyne, 2013).
Examine process evaluation data to generate feedback.
This ensures that the We Can! program is being implemented with fidelity and is appropriate to the needs of the community. Foster et al., 2019 suggest weekly interactions with the trained providers in the parents while implementing the program and monitoring the BMI within four months to assess for change.
Examine outcome evaluation data to determine outcomes.
The outcome data from this program would be increased parent knowledge of nutrition and exercise and achieving a healthier BMI in the targeted children. Other outcomes would be parents being able to access healthy foods for their children and being aware of places where their children could participate in physical activities (Conyne, 2013).
Identify impacts, incidence reduction.
Impact and incident reduction that can be achieved through the We Can! program implementation in a community Head Start would be that participating parents’ subsequent children have healthier BMIs. Also, better access to healthy food and safe places for play for the whole community. Other children that did not participate in the program would benefit from implemented changes (Conyne, 2013).
Information on the success of the program within the community could be shown in local publications with participant consent. Head Start can also continue the We Can! program with new families and share information of successes and changes made to the program to better impact their community (Conyne, 2013).
Conyne, R. (2013). Program development and evaluation in prevention. Sage.
Foster, B., Weinstein, K., & Shannon, J. (2019). Growing healthy together: Protocol for a randomized clinical trial using parent mentors for early childhood obesity intervention in a Latino community (20) 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3342-3 (Links to an external site.)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (n.d.) About We Can! Retrieved January 20, 2021, from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/wecan/about-wecan/index.htm (Links to an external site.)
Triple Positive Parenting Program
Triple Positive Parenting Program System (Triple P) is built upon the belief that there is no better target to increase the wellness of a community than employing evidence-based parenting practices (Pickering & Sanders, 2015). Triple P can be used for children from birth to 16 years old. It also has variance in its delivery intensity to work with most situations, cultures, and family systems.
Getting Outcomes Model
Step One – Needs
The first step is to assess the needs of the community. This will help the specialist focus on the problem to be prevented.
Triple P has different levels of implementation. Level One is meant to apply to the entire population and uses recruitment methods that will reach a larger target audience Positive parenting practices influence a community in a variety of ways (Doherty et al., 2006). Since the program is so well researched, it could help support many different types of preventative initiatives. Assessing the needs of a community includes understanding the people that reside there. These family systems will interact with their environments based on the health of their microsystem communication.
Step Two – Goals and Desired Outcomes
This step is when the specialist or collaboration develops an overall goal. Each objective or goal should be attached to the desired outcome. At this step, a logic model would be developed, and the implementation plan will be developed. Triple P has different goals at each different level of the program. If it was delivered in a school system where problem behavior was an issue. The objectives would be to increase the parent’s confidence in parenting their child, stronger parent communication, and aid in child self-regulation. The desired outcome would be fewer behavioral and developmental issues.
Step Three – Best Practices
When a specialist decides on an approach to the problem, they must select an evidence-based program. Research should be done at this step to see what programs have worked for this need and which ones have not. Triple P is one of the most researched models available for parents and is the most evidence-based program available. The program has been a part of 980 trials, studies, and published papers, including more than 335 evaluation papers, 172 of which are randomized controlled trials, conducted throughout the world. This evidence-based program with many levels of implementation would fit into a best practice step.
Step 4- Fit
In this step, the specialist will need to evaluate that the selected program is appropriate for the target audience. This is a time to review cultural relevance and decide if the program will need to be adapted for your audience. Triple P works across cultures, socio-economic groups, group family structures. It has been implemented and evaluated in other countries, with different types of family systems and in a myriad of communities. If decided that the focus is the health of families in a community, this program could be made to fit into the plan.
Step Five- Capacity
At this stage,p a specialist must complete a capacity assessment. It is imperative to know that the community, organization, nor collaboration has treatment the program that is chosen. In this program, the trainers will need to be trained in the objectives of the program and the fidelity. All costs associated with delivering the program should be considered.
Step Six – Plan
In this step, a plan is created to carry out the prevention program or plan. This can improve communication within the implementation team. It is a time to make sure that all activities are laid out and each detail is represented. Triple P has training and handbooks to help with this step. It would be important to understand all parts of the plan before moving into the implementation phase.
Step Seven – Process Evaluation
This step involves evaluating the plan and the process. The specialist would look for different aspects of success such as participant satisfaction, team perception, or program fidelity. The fluidity of Triple P would be helpful during this step. The program can be adapted if delivery is not successful or fidelity is threatened.
Step Eight – Outcome Evaluation
This is the process of ensuring that the desired outcomes are being met. A program should be evaluated for its effectiveness, retention, and ability to be taught as planned. When evaluated at a population level Triple P is one of the only programs that show significant improvement in parenting practices and child development outcomes (Pickering & Sanders, 2015).
Step Nine – Continuous Quality Improvement
Step Nine uses all the data, research, and evaluation to improve the program over time. Triple P has changed over time by adding different versions of the program that can meet different needs.
Step Ten –Sustainability
The tenth step is a time to review I the program or outcomes are sustainable. This is another time to assess the capacity of the target audience, organization, or participants. Step ten is also a time to analyze if the funding is available to continue the program. Triple P gives parents the tools to make changes in the lives of their families, by promoting positive parenting, increases sustainability the outcomes and impacts on a community.
Doherty, W. J., Erickson, M. F., & LaRossa, R. (2006). An intervention to increase father involvement and skills with infants during the transition to parenthood. Journal of Family Psychology: Jfp : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43), 20(3), 438–47.
Pickering, J. A., & Sanders, M. R. (2015). The triple P-positive parenting program. Family Matters, (96), 53-63.