Inflammation is a complex response of vascular tissue that is triggered by harmful stimuli. Through isolation of the damaged area and promoting repair of surrounding tissue, the inflammatory process protects the body. Inflammation is classified as acute or chronic. Acute inflammation occurs until the injury or infection is cleared, and you see the classic signs of inflammation with this such as: redness, swelling, pain and heat. Chronic inflammation continues for months or years and ranges from seasonal allergies to responses that damage healthy tissues (Alexander 2015). Sometimes your immune system recognizes your own body’s healthy cells as invaders, and then it repeatedly attacks them. This is what is called an autoimmune disease, which means immunity against the self. Autoimmune diseases can affect almost any part of the body. What causes this to happen is still unknown, but they may have genetic tendencies and outside invaders may also trigger them. How someone is affected by an autoimmune disease depends on the area of the body that is being attacked. If the joints are being targeted, the patient will have joint pain, stiffness and loss of function. If the thyroid is targeted they will experience fatigue, weight gain and muscle aches (NIH, 2016).
What happens in the body when somebody has Lupus?
Systemic Lupus erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory connective tissue disease with an unknown origin. This affect almost all body systems, including the musculoskeletal system, skin, kidneys, heart and lungs. It has periods of remission and exacerbation which ranges from mild episodes, to a fatal disease process (Alexander 2015). No two cases of Lupus are the same, but the most common symptoms are: joint pain and stiffness, fever, fatigue, skin lesions that worsen with sun exposure, shortness of breath, chest pain and confusion. The most distinguishable sign of Lupus is the butterfly rash on the nose and under the eyes. Some other complications include: kidney damage, seizures, vasculitis, pleurisy and pericarditis. Although Lupus is considered a fatal disease, survival rate has increased due to early diagnosis and treatment options.
1. Promote rest and comfort by encouraging rest periods and a healthy diet.
2. I would educate about the importance of protecting against sun exposure by wearing sunscreen, hats and appropriate clothing.
3. Promote skin integrity because skin lesions are a common manifestation of Lupus. This is done by keeping the skin dry and clean, practicing good hygiene, and using appropriate creams.
4. Administration of medication, like glucocorticoids and NSAIDS to reduce inflammation in the body.
The immune system’s sophisticated mechanisms to detect virus infection (Lowenstein, P. R., & Castro, M. G. (2003). But when you have an autoimmune disorder you body does not necessarily have an infection. It could be the body going into an inflammation phase to fight off infection but when the body does not have an infection it will eat at the good tissue and cells. When the body triggers the inflammatory response white blood cells are sent to the body to fight infection but do not actually have anything to fight. This can cause asthma, myocarditis, and shortness of breath, fluid retention, and inflammation of the small tubes of the lungs triggering breathing issues, joint inflammation. The body has a natural defense called the immune system this is what protects people from viruses, bacteria, and foreign invaders. Patients with lupus fight the battle of the body not knowing the difference between foreign and healthy cells and tissues (Meadows, M. 2005, Jul). Immune complexes build up in the tissues this causes inflammation tissue injury and pain all over the body. This can also affect any organ systems in the body. Some of the main things that they will experience are skin rashes from sensitivity to the sun, swollen joints, and kidney disease. Unfortunately, there is no cure for lupus but it can be managed. Lupus is known as the “women’s disease” nine out of ten people are a female who suffers from lupus (Kashef, Z. 1995, 10). Three interventions I would do for this patient would be pain management, breathing, and inflammation control. Because of the swelling and inflammation these patients have a lot of pain all over the body. Being able to control some of this pain will put the patient at ease a little and be able to function with daily activities that are hindered by the pain. Control of any breathing issues will help the body to be less stressed and help with the fact that they are having the breathing issues. This is something that can be life-threatening if not managed correctly. Controlling the swelling around the body will help with swelling and the pain caused by the swelling. These are all things that can affect their daily activities, regaining some of this function can help boost the patient to the next level and could potentially help if the patient has any depression caused by the disease.
There are five signs of inflammation such as pain, swelling, redness, heat, and impaired function. An immune tolerance is referred to immune system’s ability to accept, tolerate, he body’s own antigens, but attack foreign antigens. When most people think of inflammation, they assume that an injury has acquired. However, there are many people that suffer from an autoimmune disease that consist of their body’s attacking itself (Pearson, 2015). These antibodies are attacking its own cells, organs, and tissues that cause inflammation. Autoimmune diseases fall into two general types such as systemic, and localized. Systemic autoimmune diseases target and damage organs, while localized autoimmune diseases damage only a single organ or tissues (“Autoimmune Disease “, 2017). Several autoimmune diseases that people suffer from are rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and lupus.
Lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects many different body systems including joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, brain, heart, and lungs. Signs and symptoms will vary depending on what is being affected. A patient that is suffering from lupus may present with shortness of breath, chest pain, skin lesions that worsen with sun exposure, confusion, and memory loss (“Lupus”, 2017). There are several interventions that need to be addressed to ensure quality of life for this patient.
Interventions can either be independent, or a collaborative effort. Patients that suffer from lupus experience lesions that may be exacerbated from sun exposure. Ensuring the patient wears sunscreen, hat, and loose fitting clothing that protects the skin from direct sunlight. Another intervention will address joint pain, by utilizing hot packs to relieve joint pain and stiffness. Fatigue can cause stress, which leads to exacerbations of the illness. Teaching the patient to relaxing techniques that lead to better rest, and decrease chances of a weakened immune system that would not be able to fight off illnesses.
What is it about lupus that could lead a person to being more susceptible to infection?
Why could a patient with lupus present with seizure?