Module title: Hate Crime
Word limit: 2000
Learning outcomes that need to be adhered to:
1. Demonstrate an understanding of the needs of diverse vulnerable groups in society and impact of hate incidents.
2. Appreciate, describe and apply helpful and effective approaches to a wide range of groups and how the police deal with hate crime.
3. Demonstrate an understanding of the meaning of a hate crime and be able to identify the key theoretical and criminological debates surrounding hate crime.
4. Demonstrate an awareness of key legislation around hate crime and the strands associated with hate crime.
In 2007, the Police Service, Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), Prison Service (now the National Offender Management Service) and other agencies that make up the criminal justice system agreed a common definition of ‘hate crime’ and five ‘strands’ that would be monitored centrally. Hate crime is defined as ‘any criminal offence which is perceived, by the victim or any other person, to be motivated by a hostility or prejudice towards someone based on a personal characteristic.’ The five monitored strands are:
· sexual orientation;
Having picked a topic area you then need to provide examples relevant to the area of hate crime discuss these in the context of the following questions:
a) What do we know about the scale and scope of the problem in England and Wales?
b) How can we ‘make sense’ of this social/criminological issue? In other words, how does theory help us to understand this phenomenon?
c) Given what we know about the area you have identified, provide examples of policies that have been implemented to tackle the problem and support victims.
d) In relation to your chosen area, what might the future of policy look like? Put simply, are we doing enough to support victims, reduce prejudice and/or improve outcomes in relation to diversity?
In summary the essay requires you to consider how we can understand the problem under consideration and then outline key policy developments, while providing an evaluation of their likely impact on the individuals, group or community and the wider society. This might include, for example, how prejudice manifests itself in hate crime and the response by third sector agencies and the criminal justice system.
MAKE SURE THIS ESSAYS IS CIRTICALLY DISCUSSED AND BROKEN DOWN WITHIN THE FOUR QUESTIONS A,B,C,D!
This is the structure that needs to be followed:
1. Scale and scope of the problem.
2. How does theory help us to understand this phenomenon?
3. Provide examples of policies that have been implemented to tackle the problem and support victims.
4. What might the future of policy look like? Put simply, are we doing enough to support victims.
This is what needs to be included within the work!!!
· “Within this essay…”
· Content & Order
· The way we are going to answer the 4 questions related to RAC E!
· Define hate crime and define race
· Speak about the four questions (A,B,C,D) ABOVE!
A- We want to talk about a brief history of hate crime in England and Wales and then look at how racism is still a issue by looking at the Stephen Lawrence case (refer back to the Macpherson report and other race crime attacks in the UK/Global)
B- Here we will talk about the social theory and hate crime theory what they are and how they are preventing race crime. Other theories that you feel are best suited can also be used within this question!
C- Look at policies such as equal right act and the human right act and how the government has responded, assessed and criticised. Here we can refer back to the hate crime action plan 2016.
D- Need to look at statistics on whether race crime is getting higher or lower- these can be found from the national crime agency UK or the Home Office UK. Make more awareness to help for the future and answer the rest that is asked in question D above. Could argue that people who are getting targeted everyday by race crime are not reporting crimes to the police has they feel they may not get dealt with because they are beginning to see it has the normalisation of life! (they don’t see it has a crime anymore because it happens all the time)
· Address the statement in the question!
· Summarise whether hate crime (race) is getting better or not!; if not how could it be improved .
· (Answer question overall)
Essential resources that need to be used:
Awan, I. and Zempi (2016) Islamophobia: Lived Experiences of Online and Offline Victimisation, Policy Press.
Chakraborti, N., and Garland, J. (2009) Hate Crime: Impact, Causes and Responses, London: Sage Publications. THESE TWO NEED TO BE USED IN WORK! ESSENTIAL!!
Essential (Books/Journals/Specific chapters/Journal Articles)
Awan, I. (2016) Islamophobia in Cyberspace: Hate Crimes go Viral, Ashgate: Farnham, England.
Awan, I. (2014) ‘Islamophobia on Twitter: A Typology of Online Hate Against Muslims on Social Media’, Policy & Internet, Vol.6 (2): 133-150.
Awan, I. and Blakemore, B. (2012) Policing Cyber Hate, Cyber Threat and Cyber Terrorism, Ashgate: Farnham, England.
Awan, I and Zempi, I. (2015) ‘Virtual and Physical World Anti-Muslim Hate Crime’, The British Journal of Criminology (Advance Early Access http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/12/18/bjc.azv122.abstract).
Awan, I and Zempi, I (2015) Online and Offline Anti-Muslim Hostility, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 27: 1-8 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13591789/27
Awan, I and Zempi, I. (2015) ‘We fear for our Lives’, Online and Offline Anti-Muslim Hostility, A Report for Tell MAMA http://tellmamauk.org/wp-content/uploads/resources/We%20Fear%20For%20Our%20Lives.pdf
Awan, I. and Rahman, M. (2016) Portrayal of Muslims Following the Murders of Lee Rigby in Woolwich and Mohammed Saleem in Birmingham: A Content Analysis of UK Newspapers, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, (Advance Early Access http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13602004.2016.1147151).
Chakraborti, N. & Garland, J. (2014) (eds) Responding to Hate Crime: The Case for Connecting Policy and Practice, Bristol: The Policy Press.
Hall, N. (2013) Hate crime, Taylor & Francis, London.
Iganski, P. (2008) Hate Crime and the City, Bristol: The Policy Press.
Mandelstam, M. (2008) Safeguarding Vulnerable Adults and the Law, Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Perry, B. (2003) (ed.) Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader, London: Routledge.
Rowe, M. (2012) Race and Crime, London: Sage.
Sherry, M. (2010) Disability Hate Crimes: Does Anyone Really Hate Disabled People, Farnham: Ashgate.
Silvestri, M. & Crowther-Dowey, C. (2008) Gender and Crime, London: Sage.
Awan, I and Blakemore, B (2013) Extremism, Counter-Terrorism and Policing,Ashgate Publishing: London.
Finkelhar, D (2008) Childhood Victimisation: Violence, Crimes and Abuse in the lives of Young People, Oxford University Press.
Harne L and Radford J, (2008) Tackling Domestic Violence: theories, Policies and Practice, Open University Press.
Allen, C (2010) Islamophobia: Ashgate: London.
Gerstenfeld, P. (2013) Hate Crime: Causes, Controls and Controversies, Sage Publications.
Roulstone, A and Mason-Bish, H. (2013) Disability, Hate Crime and Violence, Routledge.
Other sources that need to be used when looking at statics or facts:
Home office UK
Hate Crime Action Plan 2016
Policing survey and Parliament report
Assignments will be assessed against the following criteria
· The extent to which they demonstrate an understanding of the subject matter
· The extent to which they address the question
· The extent to which they adopt an analytical approach, rather than a merely descriptive approach
· All essays must contain appropriate referencing (Harvard style) with a full references list and be written in clear and appropriate English
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