1. Discuss the difference between applied research and basic research? Give examples.
2. What are the four characteristics of effective codes of ethics? Is any single characteristic critical for the effectiveness of the code?
3. Recently, several studies have sought to measure the extent of binge drinking among college students. Explain the meaning of an operational definition and develop a good operational definition for binge drinking. Next, show the difference between a good and a poor operational definition through examples.
4. Discuss the process of conducting a critical review of the literature. What is meant by “critical”? How should it be accomplished? For what purpose?
5. What are the three types of evidence a research seeks when testing causal hypotheses? Explain.
6. Explain the three types of non-probability sampling techniques commonly used to select samples for qualitative research studies. Discuss the type(s) of sampling you’ll use in your project.
7. Discuss the strengths and limitations of observation as a data collection method.
8. Discuss five possible threats to internal validity. How do these threats weaken a design?
9. Explain the meaning of nonresponse error. How can researchers reduce the potential for nonresponse error?
10. Describe the four sources of error in measurement and provide an example for each.
11. There are several possible issues that may affect measurement questions. Discuss the possible effects of shared vocabulary, biased wording, and adequate alternatives on the quality of resulting data.
12. Explain the characteristics of a good measurement tool. Discuss how you will ensure that your survey instrument will display these characteristics.
13. Explain the researcher’s dilemma in deciding whether to use forced-choice rating scales or unforced-choice rating scales? What types of tactics can researchers use to minimize participant tendencies to avoid extreme judgments or choose extreme positions on a scale?
14. What are the three types of questions that can be used when multiple responses to a single question are desired from the respondent? Explain each type of question and cite examples.
15. What are the steps in drafting and refining a survey instrument? Explain the meaning of pretesting and why instrument designers should pretest questionnaires prior to using them in a study. Use your pilot study to illustrate the lessons learned.
16. Explain the rationale for sampling rather than using a census for every study. Discuss the difference between a probability sample and a non-probability sample. Which one is preferred by researchers? Explain.
17. What are the four rules that guide the coding and categorization of a data set? Discuss why each one is important for researchers.
18. “Research is worthless if you can’t communicate your results in a way that others can understand them.” Discuss why this statement might be true or false. How might data be displayed to better communicate results?
19. Describe the six-step procedure for testing for statistical significance. Why is it important for research to adhere to this sequence?
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