From Chapter 10: Moral Justification (Beauchamp & Childress): For this question, briefly compare and contrast the top-down (pp. 426-432), bottom-up (pp. 432-439) and reflective equilibrium (pp. 439-444) models of justification in ethics.
From Chapter 2: The Requirements of Practical Reason (Curlin & Tollefsen): In this chapter, the authors raise a crucial question: “How do we get from awareness of the basic good of human action to making moral decisions in pursuing those goods?” (p. 36) One answer to this question that many philosophers have defended is a view called consequentialism (or sometimes utilitarianism, understood as a particular version or kind of consequentialism). For this question, please answer the following: (a) Briefly explain how Curlin and Tollefsen define consequentialism and utilitarianism; and (b) Briefly explain the three objections that the authors raise against consequentialism. (pp. 37-38)