I. Differential Association Theory
A. Differential Association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland.
B. Differential Association theory proposes that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior.
II. Edwin Sutherland
A. Considered as one of the most influential criminologists of the 20th century. He was a sociologist of the symbolic interactionist school of thought and is best known for defining white-collar crime and differential association- a general theory of crime and delinquency.
B. The theory predicts that an individual will choose the criminal path when the balance of definitions for law breaking exceeds those for law abiding.
III. Sutherlands Nine Points
A. The principles of Sutherlands theory of differential association can be summarized into nine key points.
B. Criminal behavior is learned and not inherited.
C. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in the process of communication.
1. Communication can be verbal or in terms of gestures.
D. The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups.
1 Impersonal agencies like movies, newspapers, etc. play a relatively unimportant role.
C. When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes
1. The techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very simple, and the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.
D. The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal code as favorable or unfavorable.
1. Individuals are surrounded by both those who define the legal code as rules to be observed and those who have definitions favorable to the violation of legal codes.
E. A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to the violation of the law over definitions unfavorable to the violation of the law.
1. This is the principle of differential association.
2. Refers to both criminal and anti-criminal associations and counteracting forces.
F. Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.
1. Frequency: how often
2. Duration: how long
3. Priority: how early in life
4. Intensity: how respected or prestigious the source and the emotional reactions related to the associations
G. The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all the mechanisms that are involved in any learning.
1. Learning not restricted to imitation.
H. While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values since non-criminal behavior is an expression of those same needs and values.
1. Some gain employment, while others steal.
1. The paper will be summarized by who Edwin Sutherland is and what his theory is.
2. Then it will explain the 9 points of which makes up the differential association theory.
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