Total Score (max 15) ___
Title Page [Health Condition or Issue, whatever, etc.]; dataset your are using
Abstract 500-1000 ideal with subheadings: Background and Objectives or Background or Objectives; Methods [which includes the dataset that you used]; Results [your findings]; Conclusions.)
Text STRUCTURED sections (500 to 1000 words) :
What this study adds
References (5 to 10)
Figure (s) or Table (s) (EXHIBIT) Include one original graphic or table with data relevant to the problem
1. Submit brief in the format of a regular Word document; do not format it in the way that it may appear in a journal (e.g. No columns of text).
2. Maintain the order of components as expressed above (Title Page, Abstract, Text, References, Figure/Table).
3. Within text, reference figures of tables (e.g. [Figure 1]). Do not add “See” to “Figure”). Do not insert figures or tables within the text. Place all figures and tables, numbered after references
4. Within text, use superscript numbers to cite references in the number in which they appear. Right: “Previous efforts at blah, blah have resulted in blah, blah, blah1,3-4” NOT
Previous efforts at blah, blah have resulted in blah, blah, blah (Ghost C et al 2007; Blow & Blow 2008,…) No points for references not in AMA style.
5. In the References section, list the references formatted AMA (like the American J of Public Health, Public Health Reports, Pediatrics) matching the numbers in the text. Do not put in alphabetical order.
6. The most important part of the brief is the ABSTRACT. Make sure that you explain sources and methods, give quantified results, and sum up conclusions SUCCINCTLY. See samples on page 2*.
*Sample ABSTRACTS for POLICY BRIEFS
Impact of state cigarette taxes on disparities in maternal smoking during pregnancy.
We evaluated the impact of state tobacco control policies on disparities in maternal smoking during pregnancy.
We analyzed 2000-2010 National Vital Statistics System natality files with 17 699 534 births from 28 states and the District of Columbia that used the 1989 revision of the birth certificate. We conducted differences-in-differences regression models to assess whether changes in cigarette taxes and smoke-free legislation were associated with changes in maternal smoking during pregnancy and number of cigarettes smoked. To evaluate disparities, we included interaction terms between maternal race/ethnicity, education, and cigarette taxes.
Although maternal smoking decreased from 11.6% to 8.9%, White and Black women without a high school degree had some of the highest rates of smoking (39.7% and 16.4%, respectively). These same women were the most responsive to cigarette tax increases, but not to smoke-free legislation. For every $1.00 cigarette tax increase, low-educated White and Black mothers decreased smoking by nearly 2 percentage points and smoked between 14 and 22 fewer cigarettes per month.
State cigarette taxes may be an effective population-level intervention to decrease racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in maternal smoking during pregnancy.
Cigarette Tax Increase and Infant Mortality
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Maternal smoking increases the risk for preterm birth, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome, which are all causes of infant mortality. Our objective was to evaluate if changes in cigarette taxes and prices over time in the United States were associated with a decrease in infant mortality.
METHODS: We compiled data for all states from 1999 to 2010. Time-series models were constructed by infant race for cigarette tax and price with infant mortality as the outcome, controlling for state per-capita income, educational attainment, time trend, and state random effects.
RESULTS: From 1999 through 2010, the mean overall state infant mortality rate in the United States decreased from 7.3 to 6.2 per 1000 live births, with decreases of 6.0 to 5.3 for non-Hispanic white and 14.3 to 11.3 for non-Hispanic African American infants (P < .001). Mean inflation-adjusted state and federal cigarette taxes increased from $0.84 to $2.37 per pack
(P < .001). In multivariable regression models, we found that every $1 increase per pack in cigarette tax was associated with a change in infant deaths of −0.19 (95% confidence interval −0.33 to −0.05) per 1000 live births overall, including changes of −0.21 (−0.33 to −0.08) for non-Hispanic white infants and −0.46 (−0.90 to −0.01) for non-Hispanic African-American infants. Models for cigarette price yielded similar findings.
CONCLUSIONS: Increases in cigarette taxes and prices are associated with decreases in infant mortality rates, with stronger impact for African American infants. Federal and state policymakers may consider increases in cigarette taxes as a primary prevention strategy for infant mortality.
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