Directions: You are responsible for all previous learning guides for the midterm exam. Review all module learning guides for the diseases and disorders required for the exam. This portion of the midterm exam study guide will help you with the additional terms and some other information that may be on the exam. Please complete and turn in at the end of Module 3 for preparation of exam in Module 4.
CHAPTER 2 AND 9 TERMS In the boxes below, indicate the term or genetic disease that fits the definition or example. These terms can be found in readings and PowerPoints.
Definition or Example Term
Cause of the disease
A non-infected blister is an example of this.
Keloid formation is an example of this cellular adaptation
The chemicals that cause fevers.
This type of neoplasm does not metastasize
A narrowing of an open area, for example narrowing of an esophagus
Microscopic study of tissue
This mast cell chemical causes sneezing, running nose and irritation in upper respiratory tract.
Prolonged ischemia and necrosis, usually occurring in extremities
Abnormal connection between two structures.
Another word for pus.
Removal of necrotic tissue from a patient is called this.
“New growth” that is often disorganized and uncontrolled
Chemical signals that attract WBC’s and platelets
Shrinkage of skeletal muscle cells due to paralysis
CHAPTER 2 – CELLULAR INJURY, ADAPTATIONS, AND MALADAPTIVE CHANGES 1. What are two causes of cellular injury?
2. What is the difference between apoptosis and necrosis?
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HCR 240 Midterm Study Guide
CHAPTER 3 – GENETIC BASIS OF DISEASE For this chapter, please review the four diseases that you are responsible for (in Module 1 Study Guide). You will need to know general information within that table. There will be ONE question on the exam on this material.
CHAPTER 9 – INFLAMMATION AND DYSFUNCTIONAL WOUND HEALING 1. Describe a cut with primary intention, secondary intention, and tertiary intention.
CHAPTER 10 – INFECTIOUS DISEASES Fill in the table. For each pathogen indicate if it is bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasite. Then, indicate which BODY SYSTEM will be affected by the pathogen (there may be multiple systems). Look at symptoms. Remember these are the body systems (Wikipedia Page).
Pathogen Bacterial, Viral, fungal,
Parasite? Human Body System(s) affected
MMR – Measles, Mumps, Rubella
CHAPTER 11 – DISORDERS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 1. Define and compare the terms related to immune system – hypersensitivity, autoimmune, and
immunodeficiency. Give an example of each.
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HCR 240 Midterm Study Guide 2. Describe how an HIV infection progresses in the body. What are the complications that can occur if HIV
continues to progress?
3. Case Studies – Read the short patient scenarios and diagnose each patient’s conditions. Include justification or reasons why you think this condition is the immune disorder.
A. Cecilia has a known severe allergic reaction to bee stings. While at a family picnic, a bee stung Cecilia on her right upper extremity. Her husband immediately administered EpiPen injection, while others called for assistance. Cecilia is transported to the emergency department via ambulance. She presents with severe dyspnea, laryngeal swelling, and hypotension. What is the condition? What are your clues?
B. Two days after hiking through the woods with his dogs, Charles noticed a severe rash on his lower legs. He had not been wearing long pants on the hike. Based on the appearance of the rash, he believes he may have contracted poison ivy. What is the condition? What are your clues?
C. Sara, a 51-year-old woman, was recently diagnosed with an autoimmune disease. She had made an appointment to see her physician because she was experiencing chronic low fever, muscle pain, and joint pain. Her physician noted a butterfly-shaped rash on Sara’s face and ordered follow-up tests. Laboratory results revealed a positive anti-nuclear antibodies test, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Follow-up anti- double-strand DNA and anti-Sm antibody tests were positive. What is the condition? What are your clues?
D. Annie, an older woman who works as an accountant, presents to the clinic with the complaint that her hands “really hurt” while entering data into the computer because of the damage to her joints caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Annie’s fingers have a splayed appearance that can understandably make typing difficult. Damage to the joints of the fingers and hand are the result of immune complex deposition in the joint tissues. What is the condition? What are your clues?
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HCR 240 Midterm Study Guide
CHAPTERS 11-15 – VOCABULARY TERMS In the boxes below, indicate the term that fits the definition or example. These terms can be found in readings and PowerPoints.
Definition or Example Term The increase in white blood cells in the body.
Overwhelming allergic response that can be severe, life-threatening.
Proliferation of cancerous white blood cells
The increase of red blood cells in the body.
Stopping of bleeding
Type of lymphoma that has Reed-Sternberg cells
RBC destruction without replacement
A chemical that breaks up blood clots
A blood clot
Solid abnormal tumors of lymphoid cells
Lipid buildup along vessel walls
General term for insufficient oxygen delivery due to absent or inadequate red blood cells. Weakening of arterial wall causing a bulging
CHAPTER 13 – DISORDERS OF THE RED BLOOD CELLS 1. Anemia can come in many different forms. Compare the different types of anemia and how each can be
CHAPTER 14 – DISORDERS OF PLATELETS, HEMOSTASIS AND COAGULATION 1. What are risk factors for increased coagulation activity?
CHAPTER 15 – ARTERIAL DISORDERS 1. What is hypertension? What are risk factors associated to hypertension?
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HCR 240 Midterm Study Guide
CHAPTER 16– ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE 1. Name and describe the dysrhythmias of the heart. (NOTE: Remember, you are NOT required to know these by
looking at an ECG.)
2. What is angina pectoris? What causes this?
3. Name the two surgical or endovascular options to help with heart diseases and CAD. Describe them. How do they differ?
CHAPTER 17 – HEART FAILURE 1. What are the four pathological changes to heart failure?
2. Describe the causes of heart failure.
3. What is the difference between diastolic and systolic heart failure?
4. Compare high-output and low-output heart failure.
5. Describe the pathophysiological processes of LVF.
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HCR 240 Midterm Study Guide 6. RVF has many “backward effects”. Describe what this means and give an example of one of these backward
CHAPTER 19- VENOUS DISORDERS 1. What is the triad conditions of a DVT?
2. How can a DVT turn in to a PE? What is the clinical presentation of a Pulmonary Embolism?
CHAPTER 20 – RESPIRATORY INFLAMMATION AND INFECTION 1. Describe the possible pathogen(s) that can cause the following:
Disease or Disorder Common Pathogen Cause (Name the pathogen & Is it viral, bacterial, and/or other?) Acute Rhinitis
Laryngitis & Tracheitis
2. Fill in the blank for the following sign of lung pathology. a. ______________ is blood containing sputum.
b. ______________ is the collapse of alveoli.
c. ______________ is sputum-related cough.
d. _____________ is the process of coughing up sputum.
e. ______________ is shortness of breath.
f. _______________ is the insufficient oxygen in the body.
g. ______________ is an abnormal low-pitched breath sound that signals inflamed bronchi.
h. ______________ is an abnormal noncontinuous sound of deflated alveoli opening and closing against
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HCR 240 Midterm Study Guide
CHAPTER 21 – OBSTRUCTIVE RESPIRATORY DISORDERS 1. What is one way where hypoxia can be regulated in the body? Hint: Erythropoietin
2. Compare chronic bronchitis COPD and Emphysema COPD. How will clinical manifestations differ in the two?
3. Name the different types of pneumothorax. How do the differ from each other?
4. COVID-19 or SARS-Coronavirus can lead to what type of disorder in the respiratory system?
5. What is FEV1 and FVC? How do you asses COPD using these values?
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Directions: You are responsible for all previous learning guides for the midterm exam. Review all module learning guides for the diseases and disorders required for the exam. This portion of the midterm exam study guide will help you with the additi…
Chapter 2 and 9 Terms
Chapter 2 – Cellular Injury, Adaptations, and Maladaptive Changes
Chapter 3 – Genetic Basis of Disease
Chapter 9 – Inflammation and Dysfunctional Wound Healing
Chapter 10 – Infectious Diseases
Chapter 11 – Disorders of Immune System
Chapters 11-15 – Vocabulary Terms
Chapter 13 – Disorders of the Red Blood Cells
Chapter 14 – Disorders of Platelets, hemostasis and Coagulation
Chapter 15 – Arterial Disorders
Chapter 16– Ischemic Heart Disease
Chapter 17 – Heart Failure
Chapter 19- Venous Disorders
Chapter 20 – Respiratory Inflammation and Infection
Chapter 21 – Obstructive Respiratory Disorders
TermCause of the disease:
TermA noninfected blister is an example of this:
TermKeloid formation is an example of this cellular adaptation:
TermThe chemicals that cause fevers:
TermThis type of neoplasm does not metastasize:
TermA narrowing of an open area for example narrowing of an esophagus:
TermMicroscopic study of tissue:
TermThis mast cell chemical causes sneezing running nose and irritation in upper respiratory tract:
TermProlonged ischemia and necrosis usually occurring in extremities:
TermAbnormal connection between two structures:
TermAnother word for pus:
TermRemoval of necrotic tissue from a patient is called this:
TermNew growth that is often disorganized and uncontrolled:
TermChemical signals that attract WBCs and platelets:
TermShrinkage of skeletal muscle cells due to paralysis:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteCandida:
Human Body Systems affectedCandida:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteCommon Cold:
Human Body Systems affectedCommon Cold:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteEpstein Barr:
Human Body Systems affectedEpstein Barr:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteEscherichia coli:
Human Body Systems affectedEscherichia coli:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteHaemophiles influenzae:
Human Body Systems affectedHaemophiles influenzae:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteHerpes Simplex:
Human Body Systems affectedHerpes Simplex:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteInfluenza:
Human Body Systems affectedInfluenza:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteMalaria:
Human Body Systems affectedMalaria:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteMMR Measles Mumps Rubella:
Human Body Systems affectedMMR Measles Mumps Rubella:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasitePneumonia Infections:
Human Body Systems affectedPneumonia Infections:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteStaphylococcal Infections:
Human Body Systems affectedStaphylococcal Infections:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteStreptococcal Infections:
Human Body Systems affectedStreptococcal Infections:
Bacterial Viral fungal ParasiteVaricella:
Human Body Systems affectedVaricella:
TermThe increase in white blood cells in the body:
TermOverwhelming allergic response that can be severe lifethreatening:
TermProliferation of cancerous white blood cells:
TermThe increase of red blood cells in the body:
TermStopping of bleeding:
TermType of lymphoma that has ReedSternberg cells:
TermRBC destruction without replacement:
TermA chemical that breaks up blood clots:
TermA blood clot:
TermSolid abnormal tumors of lymphoid cells:
TermLipid buildup along vessel walls:
TermGeneral term for insufficient oxygen delivery due to absent or inadequate red blood cells:
TermWeakening of arterial wall causing a bulging:
Common Pathogen Cause Name the pathogen Is it viral bacterial andor otherAcute Rhinitis:
Common Pathogen Cause Name the pathogen Is it viral bacterial andor otherAcute Pharyngitis:
Common Pathogen Cause Name the pathogen Is it viral bacterial andor otherAcute Sinusitis:
Common Pathogen Cause Name the pathogen Is it viral bacterial andor otherAcute Tonsillitis:
Common Pathogen Cause Name the pathogen Is it viral bacterial andor otherEpiglottitis:
Common Pathogen Cause Name the pathogen Is it viral bacterial andor otherLaryngitis Tracheitis:
Common Pathogen Cause Name the pathogen Is it viral bacterial andor otherAcute Bronchitis:
Common Pathogen Cause Name the pathogen Is it viral bacterial andor otherPneumonia:
Common Pathogen Cause Name the pathogen Is it viral bacterial andor otherTuberculosis:
is blood containing sputum:
is the collapse of alveoli:
is sputumrelated cough:
is the process of coughing up sputum:
is shortness of breath:
is the insufficient oxygen in the body:
is an abnormal lowpitched breath sound that signals inflamed bronchi:
is an abnormal noncontinuous sound of deflated alveoli opening and closing against: