Choose a culture other than your own. This paper is an opportunity to research and learn about a culture that you may currently work with, anticipate working with in the future, or would like to learn more about.
Choose a culture:
Asian Americans Latin Americans Native Americans
Middle Eastern or Arab Americans African Americans Subgroup: see note below
You may choose to focus on a subgroup, for example: Alaskan Indians, Mexican Americans, Korean Americans. Research will show common trends or patterns, but it is understood that a counselor or other human services professional would never over-generalize or make assumptions based on race or ethnicity.
Next, choose a counseling topic:
Substance Abuse Crisis Grief and Loss
Marriage and Family Guidance and Career Mental Health
Title Page: Include a Running head and page numbers in the header. The Running head is an abbreviated title for your paper (for example, if the paper title was Substance Abuse Counseling With Latin Americans, the left header might be: Running head: SUBSTANCE ABUSE). Page numbers begin on the title page in the right header (number only). Centered on the title page, between the top and middle of the page, is the Paper Title, Your Name, and Liberty University (no other information). Follow current APA professional style standards. Please refer to the LU Writing Center for APA guidance and templates.
Abstract: The abstract is a summary of what you cover in your paper; this differs from the introduction. Center the Abstract heading (do not bold) on p. 2. The abstract is one paragraph, not indented, double-spaced, with no direct quotes or citations. The abstract is between 150-250 words. It should be in past or present tense, not future tense. Do not use personal language (I, me, we, my, for example) in the abstract. The abstract should be alone on page 2.
Do not include the topic rationale you write in Week 2, the outline you write in Week 3, or the annotated bibliography you write in Week 4, in your final paper. These are tools to help you prepare and write your final paper. The body of the paper (not including the title page, abstract, or references) should be 8-10 pages. Reserve the use of direct quotes for the most significant information that it would be difficult to put into your own words and cite. Do not use lengthy quotes (no quotes that are 40 or more words).
Introduction: One paragraph where you introduce the paper. Do not use a heading for the introductory paragraph. This goes below the paper title (centered at the top of the first page of text, which will be p. 3). ½ page
Keep in mind, that each section below must be based on your research from journal articles (not blogs, newspaper articles, books, or book reviews). There should be citations in each section of the body of your paper. Do not use first person pronouns (I/we/me/my/myself, for example) as research papers are not based on opinion or personal perspective.
In the first section, include recent research on the topic and culture. Give recent statistics (prevalence rates, information on geographic or population clusters). Aim to include what is important for colleagues to know to best work with this population to meet the specific need you are researching. Some examples of information to explore here include: family dynamics (child-rearing practices, parental roles, obligations of children to parents, nature of relationships among family members, kinship bonds, gender roles, aging, extended family, clan, role of elders, tribal councils, etc.); political and economic concerns (poverty and income levels, value of education, unemployment, reservations/Bureau of Indian Affairs, immigration, etc.); communication (bilingualism, nonverbal/body language, personal space, problem-solving, silence, eye movement, music/dance/art as communication, concept of time). 3-4 pages
In the second section, identify specific strategies and approaches to use with this population to address the needs explored in the previous section. Have you ever gone to a conference where the presenter spent the entire time talking about what the problem was, and you thought to yourself, now what? This section is just as important as the previous section. Devote equal space to researching and explaining strategies, approaches, and methods for meeting the need. Identify specific counseling therapies and techniques that you believe would work best with this population, explaining why and how you would use this approach. Some examples of popular counseling therapies include existential therapy, behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, rational emotive behavior-therapy, reality therapy, family systems theory, solution-focused therapy, narrative therapy, and creative arts therapies. I encourage you to look for non-Western based counseling approaches to write about in this section, or consider how you could adapt Western-based approaches. You may want to search for culture AND counseling; for example, Latin Americans AND counseling. 3-4 pages
Religious and Spiritual Application
In the final section, give biblical application to the topic you have been examining. Specifically examine counseling, life coaching, and/or human services from a faith-based approach. For example, if your paper looked at substance abuse, explore research on faith-based programs, and discuss why this would be meaningful for the culture you are focusing on. Explore the unique beliefs, values, ways of thinking, and expressing faith, religion, and spirituality in the culture you are researching. What is typically viewed as the role of the church for this culture? What is the common view of life after death? 1 page
End with a concise Conclusion paragraph where you summarize what you covered in the paper, and include ideas for future research needed on this topic. ½ page
References: Begin on a new page. Center (do not bold) the References heading at the top of the page. You need at least 10 peer-reviewed journal articles dated within the past 5 years, in an alphabetized list. Every source that you include in the references should be cited in your paper. Double-space.