You will write a manuscript (paper) describing your project in the format used in scientific journals. The manuscripts should be written in first person, active voice, and should be double spaced, in 12 point font, plain and not boldface type,
1. The Introduction discusses the question(s) that you address and their significance in the light of behavioral and evolutionary theory (as discussed in your readings and in lectures), and in light of recent work. This means that you must cite at least 5 original research papers in your manuscript. Original research papers are in scientific journals (e.g. Science, Animal Behaviour, or Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology) in which the authors present original data and interpretations that have not been previously published. PEER REVIEWED
The common earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris is widely distributed in the United States although it is an invasive species from Europe (Blakemore 2008). Despite living in the soil, earthworm’s display phototaxic response to light (Doolittle 1972). Lichtzellen cells which are responsible for detection of light, are found most abundantly in the worm’s epidermis (Hess 1925). Earthworms are active primarily at night and display negatively phototaxic behavior (Sandhu et al. 2017)….give more examples….
AFTER THIS PART OF THE INTRODUCTION, WHICH IS LEADING UP TO THE HYPOTHESIS YOU WANT TO TEST, YOU WOULD STATE YOUR HYPOTHESIS.
EXAMPLE : Because it has been suggested that worms are negatively phototaxic (Hess 1925), I am testing the hypothesis that worms will display negative phototaxis and move away from a bright light source.
2. The Methods section discusses the practical aspects of your work; where and when you collected your data, and specifically how you collected data. Manuscripts about field projects should include a brief description of the habitat (including abiotic, biotic, and social environmental conditions) in which your observations occurred. ALSO, IN THE METHODS YOU DESCRIBE HOW YOU ARE QUANTIFYING (COLLECTING DATA-USE METRIC MEASUREMENTS) TO TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS.
EXAMPLE : “I quantified earthworm response to light by placing earthworms in darkened paper bag for 3 hours before experiment and then counted how many worms were on the outside of the jar. Then I directed a 60 Watt LED light placed 50 cm distant from the jar for ½ hour and then counted the worms again. This procedure (a trial) was conducted 10 times. To determine if worms displayed differences in response to light, I used a Chi-square test to compare the number of worms counted in the dark vs. light environment.”
3. The Results section presents your qualitative observations and descriptions of behavior patterns and your quantitative data (in tables or graphical form) and STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. The format of the Results is that you describe in writing your important results, and refer the reader to figures, tables, or graphs to highlight your text. Look at the proper way to write legends for figures (below) and tables (above), in the papers you are reading!
4. The Discussion section is where you interpret your data and statistical analysis, and draw more general conclusions from your work. Do not just repeat your results or make references to figures or tables. Make reference to evolutionary and behavioral theory that we have discussed in class or that you are addressing in your introduction; do the answers to your questions fit current ideas about the mechanisms or adaptiveness of behavior? Citation of previous original work should go here as you compare your study to previously published studies, some of which should be in your introduction.
5. These main text sections will be followed by a Literature Cited section which contains bibliographic information, in standard scientific format, on the works that you cite in the text. The standard procedure for citations in the text is to cite the last name(s) of the author(s), and date of publication, of the source of the information to which you are referring (e.g. Emlen and Oring, 1977; Darwin, 1871). Put the citations in either alphabetical order or earliest publication first. For papers with three or more authors, cite in the text the first author’s name followed by “et al.”; all authors are then listed alphabetically in the Literature Cited section. Here you give full bibliographic information in the following format (below). References should be in alphabetical order.
Bibliographic format for journal papers:
Author(s) Last Name(s), Initials, Date of Publication. Title of article. Title of journal, volume: page numbers of article
Doolittle, J.H. 1971. The role of anterior ganglia in phototaxis and thigmotaxis in the
earthworm. Psychonomic Science. 27: 151-152.
Ratner, S.C., Gardner, L.E. 1968. Variables affecting responses of eathworms to light.
Journal of Comparative and Pysiological Psychology. 66: 239-243.
Bibliographic format for books:
Darwin, C. 1871. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. J. Murray,
GRADING = Total = 75pts Minus 20 points for not doing a statistical analysis WHICH IS THE BASIS FOR YOUR CONCLUSIONS!!!
10 pts TOTAL for following format of : Intro, M&M, Results, Disc. and Lit. Cited. –10 for any sections missing.
Overall quality of paper (proofreading, discussion of ideas, graphs/tables in results) = 25 pts